VSphere

VSphere

The Kubernetes vSphere driver contains bugs related to detaching volumes from offline nodes. See the Volume detach bug section for more details.

VM Images

When creating worker nodes for a user cluster, the user can specify an existing image. Defaults may be set in the seed cluster spec.datacenters.EXAMPLEDC.vsphere.endpoint.

Supported operating systems

  • CentOS beginning with 7.4 qcow2
  • CentOS 8 qcow2
  • Ubuntu 18.04 ova
  • Ubuntu 20.04 ova
  • Flatcar (Stable channel) ova

Importing the OVA

  1. Go into the VSphere WebUI, select your datacenter, right click onto it and choose “Deploy OVF Template”
  2. Fill in the “URL” field with the appropriate url
  3. Click through the dialog until “Select storage”
  4. Select the same storage you want to use for your machines
  5. Select the same network you want to use for your machines
  6. Leave everyhting in the “Customize Template” and “Ready to complete” dialog as it is
  7. Wait until the VM got fully imported and the “Snapshots” => “Create Snapshot” button is not grayed out anymore

Importing the QCOW2

  1. Convert it to vmdk: qemu-img convert -f qcow2 -O vmdk CentOS-7-x86_64-GenericCloud.qcow2 CentOS-7-x86_64-GenericCloud.vmdk
  2. Upload it to a Datastore of your vSphere installation
  3. Create a new virtual machine that uses the uploaded vmdk as rootdisk

Modifications

Modifications like Network, disk size, etc. must be done in the ova template before creating a worker node from it. If user clusters have dedicated networks, all user clusters therefore need a custom template.

VM Folder

During creation of a user cluster Kubermatic Kubernetes Platform (KKP) creates a dedicated VM folder in the root path on the Datastore (Defined in the seed cluster spec.datacenters.EXAMPLEDC.vsphere.datastore). That folder will contain all worker nodes of a user cluster.

Credentials / Cloud-Config

Kubernetes needs to talk to the vSphere to enable Storage inside the cluster. For this, kubernetes needs a config called cloud-config. This config contains all details to connect to a vCenter installation, including credentials.

As this Config must also be deployed onto each worker node of a user cluster, its recommended to have individual credentials for each user cluster.

Permissions

The vsphere user has to have to following permissions on the correct resources:

User Cluster Could Controller Manager / CSI

Note: Below roles were updated based on vsphere-storage-plugin-roles for external CCM which is available from kkp v2.18+ and vsphere v7.0.2+

For provisioning actions of the KKP seed cluster, a technical user (e.g. cust-ccm-cluster) is needed:

  • Role k8c-ccm-storage-vmfolder-propagate
    • Granted at VM Folder and Template Folder, propagated
    • Permissions
      • Virtual machine
        • Change Configuration
          • Add existing disk
          • Add new disk
          • Add or remove device
          • Remove disk
      • Folder
        • Create folder
        • Delete dolder
$ govc role.ls k8c-ccm-storage-vmfolder-propagate
Folder.Create
Folder.Delete
VirtualMachine.Config.AddExistingDisk
VirtualMachine.Config.AddNewDisk
VirtualMachine.Config.AddRemoveDevice
VirtualMachine.Config.RemoveDisk
  • Role k8c-ccm-storage-datastore-propagate
    • Granted at Datastore, propagated
    • Permissions
      • Datastore
        • Allocate space
        • Low level file operations
$ govc role.ls k8c-ccm-storage-datastore-propagate
Datastore.AllocateSpace
Datastore.FileManagement
  • Role Read-only (predefined)
    • Granted at …, not propagated
      • Datacenter
$ govc role.ls ReadOnly
System.Anonymous
System.Read
System.View

User Cluster

For provisioning actions of the KKP in scope of an user cluster, a technical user (e.g. cust-user-cluster) is needed:

  • Role k8c-user-vcenter
    • Granted at vcenter level, not propagated
    • Needed to customize VM during provisioning
    • Permissions
      • CNS
        • Searchable
      • Profile-driven storage
        • Profile-driven storage view
      • VirtualMachine
        • Provisioning
          • Modify customization specification
          • Read customization specifications
$ govc role.ls k8c-user-vcenter
Cns.Searchable
InventoryService.Tagging.ObjectAttachable
StorageProfile.View
System.Anonymous
System.Read
System.View
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.ModifyCustSpecs
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.ReadCustSpecs
  • Role k8c-user-datacenter
    • Granted at datacenter level, not propagated
    • Needed for cloning the template VM (obviously this is not done in a folder at this time)
    • Permissions
      • Datastore
        • Allocate space
        • Browse datastore
        • Low level file operations
        • Remove file
      • vApp
        • vApp application configuration
        • vApp instance configuration
      • Virtual Machine
        • Change CPU count
        • Memory
        • Settings
      • Inventory
        • Create from existing
$ govc role.ls k8c-user-datacenter
Datastore.AllocateSpace
Datastore.Browse
Datastore.DeleteFile
Datastore.FileManagement
InventoryService.Tagging.ObjectAttachable
System.Anonymous
System.Read
System.View
VApp.ApplicationConfig
VApp.InstanceConfig
VirtualMachine.Config.CPUCount
VirtualMachine.Config.Memory
VirtualMachine.Config.Settings
VirtualMachine.Inventory.CreateFromExisting
  • Role k8c-user-cluster-propagate
    • Granted at cluster level, propagated
    • Needed for upload of cloud-init.iso (Ubuntu and CentOS) or defining the Ignition config into Guestinfo (CoreOS)
    • Permissions
      • Host
        • Configuration
          • Storage partition configuration
          • System Management
        • Local operations
          • Reconfigure virtual machine
      • Resource
        • Assign virtual machine to resource pool
        • Migrate powered off virtual machine
        • Migrate powered on virtual machine
      • vApp
        • vApp application configuration
        • vApp instance configuration
$ govc role.ls k8c-user-cluster-propagate
Folder.Create
Host.Config.Storage
Host.Config.SystemManagement
Host.Local.ReconfigVM
Resource.AssignVMToPool
Resource.ColdMigrate
Resource.HotMigrate
VApp.ApplicationConfig
VApp.InstanceConfig
  • Role k8c-network-attach
    • Granted for each network that should be used (distributed switch + network)
    • Permissions
      • Network
        • Assign network
$ govc role.ls k8c-network-attach
Network.Assign
  • Role k8c-user-datastore-propagate
    • Granted at datastore / datastore cluster level, propagated
    • Permissions
      • Datastore
        • Allocate space
        • Browse datastore
        • Low level file operations
$ govc role.ls k8c-user-datastore-propagate
Datastore.AllocateSpace
Datastore.Browse
Datastore.FileManagement
  • Role k8c-user-folder-propagate
    • Granted at VM Folder and Template Folder level, propagated
    • Needed for managing the node VMs
    • Permissions
      • Folder
        • Create folder
        • Delete folder
      • Global
        • Set custom attribute
      • Virtual machine
        • Change Configuration
        • Edit Inventory
        • Guest operations
        • Interaction
        • Provisioning
        • Snapshot management
$ govc role.ls k8c-user-folder-propagate
Folder.Create
Folder.Delete
Global.SetCustomField
InventoryService.Tagging.ObjectAttachable
System.Anonymous
System.Read
System.View
VirtualMachine.Config.AddExistingDisk
VirtualMachine.Config.AddNewDisk
VirtualMachine.Config.AddRemoveDevice
VirtualMachine.Config.AdvancedConfig
VirtualMachine.Config.Annotation
VirtualMachine.Config.CPUCount
VirtualMachine.Config.ChangeTracking
VirtualMachine.Config.DiskExtend
VirtualMachine.Config.DiskLease
VirtualMachine.Config.EditDevice
VirtualMachine.Config.HostUSBDevice
VirtualMachine.Config.ManagedBy
VirtualMachine.Config.Memory
VirtualMachine.Config.MksControl
VirtualMachine.Config.QueryFTCompatibility
VirtualMachine.Config.QueryUnownedFiles
VirtualMachine.Config.RawDevice
VirtualMachine.Config.ReloadFromPath
VirtualMachine.Config.RemoveDisk
VirtualMachine.Config.Rename
VirtualMachine.Config.ResetGuestInfo
VirtualMachine.Config.Resource
VirtualMachine.Config.Settings
VirtualMachine.Config.SwapPlacement
VirtualMachine.Config.ToggleForkParent
VirtualMachine.Config.Unlock
VirtualMachine.Config.UpgradeVirtualHardware
VirtualMachine.GuestOperations.Execute
VirtualMachine.GuestOperations.Modify
VirtualMachine.GuestOperations.ModifyAliases
VirtualMachine.GuestOperations.Query
VirtualMachine.GuestOperations.QueryAliases
VirtualMachine.Interact.AnswerQuestion
VirtualMachine.Interact.Backup
VirtualMachine.Interact.ConsoleInteract
VirtualMachine.Interact.CreateScreenshot
VirtualMachine.Interact.CreateSecondary
VirtualMachine.Interact.DefragmentAllDisks
VirtualMachine.Interact.DeviceConnection
VirtualMachine.Interact.DisableSecondary
VirtualMachine.Interact.DnD
VirtualMachine.Interact.EnableSecondary
VirtualMachine.Interact.GuestControl
VirtualMachine.Interact.MakePrimary
VirtualMachine.Interact.Pause
VirtualMachine.Interact.PowerOff
VirtualMachine.Interact.PowerOn
VirtualMachine.Interact.PutUsbScanCodes
VirtualMachine.Interact.Record
VirtualMachine.Interact.Replay
VirtualMachine.Interact.Reset
VirtualMachine.Interact.SESparseMaintenance
VirtualMachine.Interact.SetCDMedia
VirtualMachine.Interact.SetFloppyMedia
VirtualMachine.Interact.Suspend
VirtualMachine.Interact.TerminateFaultTolerantVM
VirtualMachine.Interact.ToolsInstall
VirtualMachine.Interact.TurnOffFaultTolerance
VirtualMachine.Inventory.Create
VirtualMachine.Inventory.CreateFromExisting
VirtualMachine.Inventory.Delete
VirtualMachine.Inventory.Move
VirtualMachine.Inventory.Register
VirtualMachine.Inventory.Unregister
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.Clone
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.CloneTemplate
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.CreateTemplateFromVM
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.Customize
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.DeployTemplate
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.DiskRandomAccess
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.DiskRandomRead
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.FileRandomAccess
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.GetVmFiles
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.MarkAsTemplate
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.MarkAsVM
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.ModifyCustSpecs
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.PromoteDisks
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.PutVmFiles
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.ReadCustSpecs
VirtualMachine.State.CreateSnapshot
VirtualMachine.State.RemoveSnapshot
VirtualMachine.State.RenameSnapshot
VirtualMachine.State.RevertToSnapshot

The described permissions have been tested with vSphere 7.0.U2 and might be different for other vSphere versions.

Terraform Setup

It’s also possible to create the roles by a terraform script. The following repo can be used as reference:

Volume Detach Bug

After a node is powered-off, the Kubernetes vSphere driver doesn’t detach disks associated with PVCs mounted on that node. This makes it impossible to reschedule pods using these PVCs until the disks are manually detached in vCenter.

Upstream Kubernetes has been working on the issue for a long time now and tracking it under the following tickets:

Datastores and Datastore Clusters

Datastore in VMWare vSphere is an abstraction for storage. Datastore Cluster is a collection of datastores with shared resources and a shared management interface.

In KKP Datastores are used for two purposes:

  • Storing the VMs files for the worker nodes of vSphere user clusters.
  • Generating the vSphere cloud provider storage configuration for user clusters. In particular to provide the dafault-datastore value, that is the default datastore for dynamic volume provisioning.

Datastore Clusters can only be used for the first purpose as it cannot be specified directly in vSphere cloud configuration.

There are two places where Datastores and Datastore Clusters can be configured in KKP

  • At datacenter level (either with Seed CRD or datacenters.yaml) is possible to specify the default Datastore that will be used for user clusters dynamic volume provisioning and workers VMs placement in case no Datastore or Datastore Cluster is specified at cluster level.
  • At Cluster level it is possible to provide either a Datastore or a Datastore Cluster respectively with spec.cloud.vsphere.datastore and spec.cloud.vsphere.datastoreCluster fields.

At the moment of writing this document *Datastore and Datastore Cluster are not supported yet at Cluster level by Kubermatic UI.

It is possible to specify Datastore or Datastore Clusters in preset.