In this quick start we’re going to show how to get started with KubeOne on Packet. We’ll cover how to create the needed infrastructure using our example Terraform scripts and then install Kubernetes. Finally, we’re going to show how to destroy the cluster along with the infrastructure.
As a result, you’ll get Kubernetes High-Available (HA) clusters with three control plane nodes and one worker node (which can be easily scaled).
To follow this quick start, you’ll need:
The provided credentials are deployed to the cluster to be used by machine-controller for creating worker nodes.
In order for Terraform to successfully create the infrastructure and for machine-controller to create worker nodes you need an API Access Token. You can refer to the official documentation for guidelines for generating the token.
Once you have the API access token you need to set the
PACKET_PROJECT_ID environment variables:
export PACKET_AUTH_TOKEN=<api key> export PACKET_PROJECT_ID=<project UUID>
KubeOne is based on the Bring-Your-Own-Infra approach, which means that you have to provide machines and needed resources yourself. To make this task easier we are providing Terraform scripts that you can use to get started. You’re free to use your own scripts or any other preferred approach.
The Terraform scripts for Packet are located in the
KubeOne comes with the Terraform integration that can source information about
the infrastructure directly from the Terraform output. If you decide not to use
our Terraform scripts, but you still want to use the Terraform integration, you
must ensure that your
Terraform output (
is using the same format as ours. Alternatively, if you decide not to use Terraform,
you can provide needed information about the infrastructure manually in the
KubeOne configuration file.
As Packet doesn’t have Load Balancers as a Service (LBaaS), the example Terraform scripts will create an instance for a Load Balancer and setup it using GoBetween. This setup may not be appropriate for the production usage, but it allows us to provide better HA experience in an easy to consume manner.
First, we need to switch to the directory with Terraform scripts:
Before we can use Terraform to create the infrastructure for us, Terraform needs
to download the Packet plugin. This is done by running the
You need to run this command only the first time before using scripts.
You may want to configure the provisioning process by setting variables defining
the cluster name, device type, facility and similar. The easiest way is to
terraform.tfvars file and store variables there. This file is
automatically read by Terraform.
For the list of available settings along with their names please see the
variables.tf file. You should consider setting:
|cluster_name||yes||cluster name and prefix for cloud resources|
|project_id||yes||Packet project UUID|
|ssh_public_key_file||~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub||path to your SSH public key that’s deployed on instances|
|device_type||t1.small.x86||control plane instance type (note that you should have at least 2 GB RAM and 2 CPUs for Kubernetes to work properly)|
terraform.tfvars file can look like:
cluster_name = "demo" project_id = "<PROJECT-UUID>"
Now that you configured Terraform you can use the
plan command to see what
changes will be made:
Finally, if you agree with changes you can proceed and provision the infrastructure:
Shortly after you’ll be asked to enter
yes to confirm your intention to
provision the infrastructure.
Infrastructure provisioning takes around 3 minutes.
Once the provisioning is done, you need to export the Terraform output using the following command. This Terraform output file will be used by KubeOne to source information about the infrastructure and worker nodes.
terraform output -json > tf.json
The generated output is based on the
If you want to change any settings, such as how worker nodes are created,
you can modify the
output.tf file. Make sure to run
terraform output again after modifying the file.
Now that you have the infrastructure you can proceed with provisioning your Kubernetes cluster using KubeOne.
Before you start, you’ll need a configuration file that defines how Kubernetes
will be installed, e.g. what version will be used and what features will be
enabled. For the configuration file reference run
kubeone config print --full.
To get started you can use the following configuration file:
apiVersion: kubeone.io/v1alpha1 kind: KubeOneCluster versions: kubernetes: "1.18.0" cloudProvider: name: "packet" external: true clusterNetwork: podSubnet: "192.168.0.0/16" serviceSubnet: "172.16.0.0/12"
It’s important to provide custom
clusterNetwork settings in order to
avoid colliding with private Packet network (which is
This configuration manifest instructs KubeOne to provision Kubernetes 1.18.0
cluster on Packet. Other properties, including information about the infrastructure
and how to create worker nodes are sourced from the Terraform output.
As KubeOne is using Kubermatic
for creating worker nodes, see the Packet example manifest
for available options.
external: true field instructs KubeOne to configure the Kubernetes
components to work with the external Cloud Controller Manager and to deploy
the Packet CCM.
The Packet CCM is responsible for fetching information about nodes from
Finally, we’re going to install Kubernetes by using the
install command and
providing the configuration file and the Terraform output:
kubeone install -m config.yaml --tfjson <DIR-WITH-tfstate-FILE>
Alternatively, if the terraform state file is in the current working directory
--tfjson . can be used as well.
The installation process takes some time, usually 5-10 minutes. The output should look like the following one:
$ kubeone install -m config.yaml -t tf.json INFO[14:19:46 EEST] Installing prerequisites… INFO[14:19:47 EEST] Determine operating system… node=126.96.36.199 INFO[14:19:47 EEST] Determine hostname… node=188.8.131.52 INFO[14:19:47 EEST] Creating environment file… node=184.108.40.206 INFO[14:19:47 EEST] Determine operating system… node=220.127.116.11 INFO[14:19:48 EEST] Installing kubeadm… node=18.104.22.168 os=ubuntu INFO[14:19:48 EEST] Determine hostname… node=22.214.171.124 INFO[14:19:48 EEST] Creating environment file… node=126.96.36.199 INFO[14:19:48 EEST] Determine operating system… node=188.8.131.52 INFO[14:19:48 EEST] Installing kubeadm… node=184.108.40.206 os=ubuntu INFO[14:19:49 EEST] Determine hostname… node=220.127.116.11 INFO[14:19:49 EEST] Creating environment file… node=18.104.22.168 INFO[14:19:49 EEST] Installing kubeadm… node=22.214.171.124 os=ubuntu INFO[14:20:36 EEST] Deploying configuration files… node=126.96.36.199 os=ubuntu INFO[14:20:38 EEST] Deploying configuration files… node=188.8.131.52 os=ubuntu INFO[14:20:40 EEST] Deploying configuration files… node=184.108.40.206 os=ubuntu INFO[14:20:41 EEST] Generating kubeadm config file… INFO[14:20:42 EEST] Configuring certs and etcd on first controller… INFO[14:20:42 EEST] Ensuring Certificates… node=220.127.116.11 INFO[14:20:54 EEST] Downloading PKI files… node=18.104.22.168 INFO[14:20:56 EEST] Creating local backup… node=22.214.171.124 INFO[14:20:56 EEST] Deploying PKI… INFO[14:20:56 EEST] Uploading files… node=126.96.36.199 INFO[14:20:56 EEST] Uploading files… node=188.8.131.52 INFO[14:21:01 EEST] Configuring certs and etcd on consecutive controller… INFO[14:21:01 EEST] Ensuring Certificates… node=184.108.40.206 INFO[14:21:01 EEST] Ensuring Certificates… node=220.127.116.11 INFO[14:21:11 EEST] Initializing Kubernetes on leader… INFO[14:21:11 EEST] Running kubeadm… node=18.104.22.168 INFO[14:22:29 EEST] Joining controlplane node… INFO[14:22:29 EEST] Waiting 30s to ensure main control plane components are up… node=22.214.171.124 INFO[14:24:22 EEST] Waiting 30s to ensure main control plane components are up… node=126.96.36.199 INFO[14:26:21 EEST] Copying Kubeconfig to home directory… node=188.8.131.52 INFO[14:26:21 EEST] Copying Kubeconfig to home directory… node=184.108.40.206 INFO[14:26:21 EEST] Copying Kubeconfig to home directory… node=220.127.116.11 INFO[14:26:22 EEST] Building Kubernetes clientset… INFO[14:26:26 EEST] Creating credentials secret… INFO[14:26:26 EEST] Ensure external CCM is up to date INFO[14:26:27 EEST] Patching coreDNS with uninitialized toleration… INFO[14:26:27 EEST] Applying canal CNI plugin… INFO[14:26:31 EEST] Installing machine-controller… INFO[14:26:35 EEST] Installing machine-controller webhooks… INFO[14:26:37 EEST] Waiting for machine-controller to come up… INFO[14:27:17 EEST] Creating worker machines…
KubeOne automatically downloads the Kubeconfig file for the cluster. It’s named
as <cluster_name>-kubeconfig, where <cluster_name> is the name
provided in the
terraform.tfvars file. You can use it with kubectl such as:
or export the
KUBECONFIG environment variable:
You can check the [Configure Access To Multiple Clusters][access-clusters] document to learn more about managing access to your clusters.
Worker nodes are managed by the machine-controller. By default, it creates
one MachineDeployment object. That object can be scaled up and down
(including to 0) using the Kubernetes API. To do so you first got
to retrieve the
machinedeployments by running:
kubectl get machinedeployments -n kube-system
The names of the
machinedeployments are generated. You can scale the workers
in those using:
kubectl --namespace kube-system scale machinedeployment/<MACHINE-DEPLOYMENT-NAME> --replicas=3
kubectl scale command is not working as expected with kubectl v1.15.
If you want to use the scale command, please upgrade to kubectl v1.16 or newer.
Before deleting a cluster you should clean up all MachineDeployments,
so all worker nodes are deleted. You can do it with the
kubeone reset config.yaml --tfjson <DIR-WITH-tfstate-FILE>
This command will wait for all worker nodes to be gone. Once it’s done you can proceed and destroy the Packet infrastructure using Terraform:
You’ll be asked to enter
yes to confirm your intention to destroy the cluster.
Congratulations! You’re now running Kubernetes HA cluster with three control plane nodes and one worker node. If you want to learn more about KubeOne and its features, make sure to check our documentation.