Hetzner

How To Install Kubernetes On Hetzner Cluster Using KubeOne

In this quick start we’re going to show how to get started with KubeOne on Hetzner. We’ll cover how to create the needed infrastructure using our example Terraform scripts and then install Kubernetes. Finally, we’re going to show how to destroy the cluster along with the infrastructure.

As a result, you’ll get Kubernetes High-Available (HA) clusters with three control plane nodes and one worker node.

Prerequisites

To follow this quick start, you’ll need:

  • KubeOne v0.11.1 or newer installed, which can be done by following the Installing KubeOne section of the README
  • Terraform v0.12.0 or newer installed. Older releases are not compatible. The binaries for Terraform can be found on the Terraform website

Setting Up Credentials

The provided credentials are deployed to the cluster to be used by machine-controller for creating worker nodes.

In order for Terraform to successfully create the infrastructure and for machine-controller to create worker nodes, you need a Hetzner API Token.

Once you have the API token you need to set the HCLOUD_TOKEN environment variable containing the token:

export HCLOUD_TOKEN=...

Creating Infrastructure

KubeOne is based on the Bring-Your-Own-Infra approach, which means that you have to provide machines and needed resources yourself. To make this task easier we are providing Terraform scripts that you can use to get started. You’re free to use your own scripts or any other preferred approach.

The Terraform scripts for Hetzner are located in the ./examples/terraform/hetzner directory.

KubeOne comes with the Terraform integration that can source information about the infrastructure directly from the Terraform output. If you decide not to use our Terraform scripts, but you still want to use the Terraform integration, you must ensure that your Terraform output (output.tf) is using the same format as ours. Alternatively, if you decide not to use Terraform, you can provide needed information about the infrastructure manually in the KubeOne configuration file.

First, we need to switch to the directory with Terraform scripts:

cd ./examples/terraform/hetzner

Before we can use Terraform to create the infrastructure for us, Terraform needs to download the Hetzner plugin. This is done by running the init command:

terraform init

You need to run this command only the first time before using scripts.

You may want to configure the provisioning process by setting variables defining the cluster name, control plane type and similar. The easiest way is to create the terraform.tfvars file and store variables there. This file is automatically read by Terraform.

nano terraform.tfvars

For the list of available settings along with their names, please see the variables.tf file. You should consider setting cluster_name which is a prefix for cloud resources and required.

The terraform.tfvars file can look like:

cluster_name = "demo"

Now that you configured Terraform you can use the plan command to see what changes will be made:

terraform plan

Finally, if you agree with changes you can proceed and provision the infrastructure:

terraform apply

Shortly after you’ll be asked to enter yes to confirm your intention to provision the infrastructure.

Infrastructure provisioning takes around 5 minutes.

Once the provisioning is done, you need to export the Terraform output using the following command. This Terraform output file will be used by KubeOne to source information about the infrastructure and worker nodes.

terraform output -json > tf.json

The generated output is based on the output.tf file. If you want to change any settings, such as how worker nodes are created, you can modify the output.tf file. Make sure to run terraform apply and terraform output again after modifying the file.

Installing Kubernetes

Now that you have the infrastructure you can proceed with provisioning your Kubernetes cluster using KubeOne.

Before you start, you’ll need a configuration file that defines how Kubernetes will be installed, e.g. what version will be used and what features will be enabled. For the configuration file reference run kubeone config print --full.

To get started you can use the following configuration file:

config.yml:

apiVersion: kubeone.io/v1alpha1
kind: KubeOneCluster
versions:
  kubernetes: '1.18.0'
cloudProvider:
  name: 'hetzner'
  external: true

This configuration manifest instructs KubeOne to provision Kubernetes 1.18.0 cluster on Hetzner. Other properties, including information about the infrastructure and how to create worker nodes are sourced from the Terraform output. As KubeOne is using Kubermatic machine-controller for creating worker nodes, see the Hetzner example manifest for available options.

The external: true field instructs KubeOne to configure the Kubernetes components to work with the external Cloud Controller Manager and to deploy the Hetzner CCM. The Hetzner CCM is responsible for fetching information about nodes from the API.

Finally, we’re going to install Kubernetes by using the install command and providing the configuration file:

kubeone install -m config.yaml --tfjson <DIR-WITH-tfstate-FILE>

Alternatively, if the terraform state file is in the current working directory --tfjson . can be used as well.

The installation process takes some time, usually 5-10 minutes. The output should look like the following one:

time="11:59:19 UTC" level=info msg="Installing prerequisites…"
time="11:59:20 UTC" level=info msg="Determine operating system…" node=157.230.114.40
time="11:59:20 UTC" level=info msg="Determine operating system…" node=157.230.114.39
time="11:59:20 UTC" level=info msg="Determine operating system…" node=157.230.114.42
time="11:59:21 UTC" level=info msg="Determine hostname…" node=157.230.114.40
time="11:59:21 UTC" level=info msg="Creating environment file…" node=157.230.114.40
time="11:59:21 UTC" level=info msg="Installing kubeadm…" node=157.230.114.40 os=ubuntu
time="11:59:21 UTC" level=info msg="Determine hostname…" node=157.230.114.39
time="11:59:21 UTC" level=info msg="Creating environment file…" node=157.230.114.39
time="11:59:21 UTC" level=info msg="Installing kubeadm…" node=157.230.114.39 os=ubuntu
time="11:59:22 UTC" level=info msg="Determine hostname…" node=157.230.114.42
time="11:59:22 UTC" level=info msg="Creating environment file…" node=157.230.114.42
time="11:59:22 UTC" level=info msg="Installing kubeadm…" node=157.230.114.42 os=ubuntu
time="11:59:59 UTC" level=info msg="Deploying configuration files…" node=157.230.114.39 os=ubuntu
time="12:00:03 UTC" level=info msg="Deploying configuration files…" node=157.230.114.42 os=ubuntu
time="12:00:04 UTC" level=info msg="Deploying configuration files…" node=157.230.114.40 os=ubuntu
time="12:00:05 UTC" level=info msg="Generating kubeadm config file…"
time="12:00:06 UTC" level=info msg="Configuring certs and etcd on first controller…"
time="12:00:06 UTC" level=info msg="Ensuring Certificates…" node=157.230.114.39
time="12:00:09 UTC" level=info msg="Generating PKI…"
time="12:00:09 UTC" level=info msg="Running kubeadm…" node=157.230.114.39
time="12:00:09 UTC" level=info msg="Downloading PKI files…" node=157.230.114.39
time="12:00:10 UTC" level=info msg="Creating local backup…" node=157.230.114.39
time="12:00:10 UTC" level=info msg="Deploying PKI…"
time="12:00:10 UTC" level=info msg="Uploading files…" node=157.230.114.42
time="12:00:10 UTC" level=info msg="Uploading files…" node=157.230.114.40
time="12:00:13 UTC" level=info msg="Configuring certs and etcd on consecutive controller…"
time="12:00:13 UTC" level=info msg="Ensuring Certificates…" node=157.230.114.40
time="12:00:13 UTC" level=info msg="Ensuring Certificates…" node=157.230.114.42
time="12:00:15 UTC" level=info msg="Initializing Kubernetes on leader…"
time="12:00:15 UTC" level=info msg="Running kubeadm…" node=157.230.114.39
time="12:01:47 UTC" level=info msg="Joining controlplane node…"
time="12:03:01 UTC" level=info msg="Copying Kubeconfig to home directory…" node=157.230.114.39
time="12:03:01 UTC" level=info msg="Copying Kubeconfig to home directory…" node=157.230.114.40
time="12:03:01 UTC" level=info msg="Copying Kubeconfig to home directory…" node=157.230.114.42
time="12:03:03 UTC" level=info msg="Building Kubernetes clientset…"
time="12:03:04 UTC" level=info msg="Applying canal CNI plugin…"
time="12:03:06 UTC" level=info msg="Installing machine-controller…"
time="12:03:28 UTC" level=info msg="Installing machine-controller webhooks…"
time="12:03:28 UTC" level=info msg="Waiting for machine-controller to come up…"
time="12:04:08 UTC" level=info msg="Creating worker machines…"
time="12:04:10 UTC" level=info msg="Skipping Ark deployment because no backup provider was configured."

KubeOne automatically downloads the Kubeconfig file for the cluster. It’s named as <cluster_name>-kubeconfig, where <cluster_name> is the name provided in the terraform.tfvars file. You can use it with kubectl such as:

kubectl --kubeconfig=<cluster_name>-kubeconfig

or export the KUBECONFIG environment variable:

export KUBECONFIG=$PWD/<cluster_name>-kubeconfig

You can check the Configure Access To Multiple Clusters document to learn more about managing access to your clusters.

Scaling Worker Nodes

Worker nodes are managed by the machine-controller. By default, it creates one MachineDeployment object. That object can be scaled up and down (including to 0) using the Kubernetes API. To do so you first got to retrieve the machinedeployments by running:

kubectl get machinedeployments -n kube-system

The names of the machinedeployments are generated. You can scale the workers in those using:

kubectl --namespace kube-system scale machinedeployment/<MACHINE-DEPLOYMENT-NAME> --replicas=3

The kubectl scale command is not working as expected with kubectl v1.15. If you want to use the scale command, please upgrade to kubectl v1.16 or newer.

Deleting The Cluster

Before deleting a cluster you should clean up all MachineDeployments, so all worker nodes are deleted. You can do it with the kubeone reset command:

kubeone reset config.yaml --tfjson <DIR-WITH-tfstate-FILE>

This command will wait for all worker nodes to be gone. Once it’s done you can proceed and destroy the Hetzner infrastructure using Terraform:

terraform destroy

You’ll be asked to enter yes to confirm your intention to destroy the cluster.

Congratulations! You’re now running Kubernetes HA cluster with three control plane nodes and one worker node. If you want to learn more about KubeOne and its features, make sure to check our documentation.